Book: Nurture Shock – Review

Nurtureshock: Why Everything We Thought About Children is Wrong – Po Bronson and Ashley Merryman

This review is only about Chapter 2, since that is about sleep, which is the subject of my current project. The other chapters are equally interesting though! In the chapter ‘The Lost Hour’, the authors describe how children today sleep one hour less than they did 30 years ago and how that impacts their wellbeing.

Like in several scientific papers I read on this subject, it is stated here that a high percentage of high-schoolers feel sleepy during school, their grades drop because of that, and some fall asleep in class. They go as far as to say that the average amount of sleep a child in high school gets, is only 6,5 hours!

The causes for this lack of sleep are the usual suspects: full schedules, early school start times, adolescent circadian clock shifts. Not much time is spend describing possible solutions for this lack of sleep, other than that teenagers who went to bed earlier, got more sleep; their IQ went up and so did their grades. But how to motivate teenagers to go to bed early?

Then an interesting part about adolescents. For reference, I looked up the definition of adolescence in several sources. I was disappointed to find no watertight definition of it, other than some rather vague descriptions without much overlap. The World Health Organisation defines adolescence as the period between 10 and 20 years of age. In the US, adolescent age is often defined as between 13 and 24.

Brown’s Mary Carskadon has demonstrated that during puberty, the circadian system – the biological clock – does a ‘phase shift’ that keeps adolescents up later. In prepubescents and grownups, when it gets dark outside, the brain produces melatonin, which makes us sleepy, But adolescent brains don’t release melatonin for another 90 minutes. So even if teenagers are in bed at 10 p.m. (which they aren’t), they lie awake, staring at the ceiling.

Several experiments with pushing back school start times and letting teens sleep longer, have yielded better results on SAT tests. And interestingly, also typical modern puberescent behaviours like moodiness, depression and binge eating go down with more sleep. Could it be that todays teenagers act out more because of their lack of sleep? The authors of Nurtureshock certainly believe so.

Another side effect of sleep deprivation is an increased chance of becoming obese. Hormone levels change with sleep loss, increasing the feeling of hunger and favouring storage of fat. Furthermore, when you sleep less, you are tired during the day, so you are less likely to have an active lifestyle on top of being hungry. Plus, when you are asleep, you are not eating!

For my research, physical health could be an interesting aspect to define benefits of the proposed nap with. Next to factors like daytime sleepiness, moodiness and cognitive abilities, physical health is important. It would be good to incorporate some measure of that, be it weight, blood pressure or resting heart rate.

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Chronic Sleep Reduction and School Achievement – Review

MEIJER, A. M. (2008), Chronic sleep reduction, functioning at school and school achievement in preadolescents. Journal of Sleep Research, 17: 395–405. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2008.00677.x

An interesting study on the effects of chronic sleep reduction on the school results of 7th and 8th grade school children. The conclusion is that chronic sleep reduction affects school achievements negatively, directly and indirectly. How does this work?

Chronic sleep reduction can occur by sleeping too shortly or having poor quality of sleep (interrupted), over a longer period. Consequences of chronic sleep reduction can include:

Teen Sleep article- Review

Review of article: ‘Teen sleep: Why is your teen so tired?’– Mayo Clinic

A good introduction to the problem of adolescent sleep problems, although this article speaks of ‘teens’ where ‘adolescence’ can sometimes mean from 10 to 23 years old.

“puberty changes a teen’s internal clock, delaying the time he or she starts feeling sleepy — often until 11 p.m. or later. Staying up late to study or socialize can disrupt a teen’s internal clock even more” Continue reading

Sleep Information from Wikipedia

Excerpts from the Wikipedia pages on sleep. Most interesting I find the information on the human biological clock, and the hormonal and bodily effects it has. Habit and behaviour are but a small part in this.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sleep
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Segmented_sleep
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyphasic_sleep

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New Project: Smart Sleep

After a long summer break, a new post to break the silence. My new project is called Smart Sleep. It is of course about sleep, and specifically how sleep or sleep patterns can be enhanced by applying one of many new scientific insights of recent years.

A while ago I read in ‘Nurtureshock‘ by Po Bronson, about melatonin production changes in adolescents, and how this can lead to chronic sleep reduction and reduced cognitive abilities. Especially because this age group is still in school, where they should be learning instead of napping, it seems Continue reading